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Ethics and the Military Profession
It is becoming increasingly common to refer to military ethics as a branch of professional ethics. Whilst many maintain that the ethics of war are simply reflections of ordinary normative principles applied to the context of war, most will assert that military ethics consists not only in principles, but virtues of character, professional models of best practice, and institutional complexities; these factors warrant discussion alongside (and at times, as part of) normative approaches to the ethics of war, such as Just War Theory. The Ethics and the Military Profession Project takes a holistic approach to military ethics, considering not only the ethics of war, but the ethical training of military personnel, the moral responsibilities of commanders and political leaders, the psychological and moral consequences of killing, and the moral experiences of veterans. It aims to foster research in the area of applied ethics, with some related insights in the fields of politics, education, religious studies, and psychology.
Dr. Matthew Beard
Dr. Matthew Beard was awarded his PhD in Philosophy from the University of Notre Dame Australia. His doctoral thesis was in the area of military ethics, just war theory and the post-war experience of veterans. Matthew is also interested in using philosophy and community to cultivate a moral enriching social life for individuals.
As convener of the 'Military Ethics and the Professions' research project, Matthew is currently working on two research projects for the Australian Army on the ethics of military technologies and is involved in a collaborative research project with UNSW Canberra on the subject of moral injury. He has also published a number of book chapters, conference papers, and peer-reviewed articles, including chapters in Binary Bullets: The Ethics of Cyberwarfare (OUP), Unseen Wounds: The Personal Costs of Modern Warfare (UNSW Press), and Ethics and the Future of Spying; Technology, Intelligence Collection and National Security (Routledge). His work has also featured in the Journal of Military Ethics.
Matthew is interested in communicating philosophical and ethical issues to the broader public. He has discussed subjects including military ethics, moral injury and PTSD, cyberwar, torture, and medical ethics in radio interviews, public opinion pieces, and on television both domestically and internationally. He is also a regular contributor to a multi-authored philosophy blog at The Conversation.
- Master’s Co-supervision with Prof. Bernadette Tobin: Dr. Lt. Chris McLean RAAMC
- LOGOS Co-ordinator: "Just War"
- 'Soldier Enhancement: Ethical Risks and Opportunities', Army Research Scheme, 2015, Collaborators: Professor Sandra Lynch (UNDA), Dr. Jai Galliott (UNSW)
- 'Cyberwar: Ethical Risks and Opportunities', Army Research Scheme, 2015, Collaborators: Professor Sandra Lynch (UNDA), Dr. Jai Galliott (UNSW)
- Matthew Beard, "Wounds that Leave No Scars: Why Moral Injury Needs Philosophers," in Unseen Wounds: The Personal Costs of Modern Warfare, ed. Thomas Frame (UNSW Press) (forthcoming)
- Matthew Beard, "Keeping hands clean in war: the double-effect approach to killing," Research in Ethical Issues in Organisations (2015) (forthcoming)
- Matthew Beard, "Militarising Space: Weapons in Orbit," in Commercial Space Exploration: Ethics, Policy and Governance, ed. Jai Galliott (Ashgate) (forthcoming)
- Matthew Beard, "The Human Costs of Torture" in Ethics and the Future of Spying; Technology, Intelligence Collection and National Security, edited by Jai Galliott & Warren Reed (Routledge) (forthcoming)
- Matthew Beard, "Cyberwar and Just War Theory? A moral framework for cyber-espionage" in Ethics and the Future of Spying; Technology, Intelligence Collection and National Security, edited by Jai Galliott & Warren Reed (Routledge) (forthcoming)
- Matthew Beard, "The Code of the Cyber-warrior," in Binary Bullets: The Ethics of Cyberwar, edited by Fritz Allhoff, Bradley J. Strawser and Adam Henschke, (Oxford University Press) (forthcoming)
- Matthew Beard,"Shielding humanity: a new approach to military honour," Journal of Military Ethics (2015) (forthcoming)
- Matthew Beard,"Virtuous Soldiers: A Role for the Liberal Arts?," Journal of Military Ethics 13:3 (2014): 274-294
- Matthew Beard,"Enriching Rights: Virtue and Moral Sacrifice in Just War Theory," Research in Ethical Issues in Organisations 13 (2014): 59-74
- Matthew Beard,"Cyberwar and Just War Theory," in Applied Ethics, Risk, Justice and Liberty, edited by the Centre for Applied Ethics and Philosophy (Hokkaido: Centre for Applied Ethics and Philosophy, 2013): 1-12
- Matthew Beard, "Risking Aggression: toleration of threat and preventive war," Heythrop Journal Online first (2014): DOI 10/1111/heyj.12031
- 'Unseen Wounds: The Personal Costs of Modern Warfare' - Australian Centre for the Studies of Armed Conflict and Society, UNSW Canberra
- This project aims to understand the specific nature of moral injury – a condition that is used to describe the deleterious experiences of many soldiers and veterans – and its relationship to other conditions such as PTSD. The project is a three-year initiative designed around an annual symposium and book publication. It is a collaboration between ADF personnel, ethicists, philosophers, theologians, historians, and psychologists, and is led by Professor Tom Frame, UNSW Canberra.
- 'The Student Soldier: Reducing Barriers for Army Personnel to Study at Civilian Universities', Army Research Scheme (awaiting confirmation), Collaborators: Dr. Shannon Kennedy-Clark (UNDA), Dr. Katrina Eddles-Hirsch (UNDA), Mr. Tryon Francis (UNDA)
- This is a collaboration between the Institute for Ethics & Society and the School of Education at the University of Notre Dame Australia. The project aims to explore the various restrictions that ADF veterans face in accessing and successfully participating in tertiary education. As many veterans struggle to re-enter society successfully, this project aims to address an important and underexplored area: namely, the post-war care that the state and community owe to former military personnel, and the ways in which community participation can serve to rehabilitate veterans' moral and psychological wounds.
- Matthew Beard, 'The Ethics of the War on Terror', Eureka Street, Vol. 25, No. 3, 17 February 2015, http://eurekastreet.com.au/article.aspx?aeid=42601#.VOvVnPmUd8E
- Matthew Beard, 'American Sniper murder trial highlights problems facing traumatised military veterans', ABC The World Today, 12/2/15, http://www.abc.net.au/worldtoday/content/2015/s4178618.htm
- Matthew Beard, "'It's a Hell of a Thing': American Sniper and the True Costs of Killing," ABC Religion and Ethics, 11 February 2015, http://www.abc.net.au/religion/articles/2015/02/11/4178104.htm
- 'Inside the mind of a torturer' ABC The Drum, 10/10/14, http://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-12-10/beard-cheney-defends-torture/5957372
- 'What's behind the spy 'code of conduct' between Australia and Indonesia?' The Guardian, 28/8/14, http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/aug/28/whats-behind-the-spy-code-of-conduct-between-australia-and-indonesia
- 'Why the UN should send peacekeepers into Gaza', Crikey, 4/8/14, http://www.crikey.com.au/2014/08/04/why-the-un-should-send-peacekeepers-into-gaza/
- 'Blood, tears, and ethics in Gaza', Eureka Street, 24/7/14
- 'The Virtue of Proportionate Response: Why Israel Must Resist Personal Vengeance,' ABC Religion and Ethics, 3/7/14, http://www.abc.net.au/religion/articles/2014/07/03/4038274.htm
- 'Deserters aren't born, but made: Bowe Bergdahl and moral injury,' The Conversation, 17/6/14, https://theconversation.com/deserters-arent-born-but-made-bowe-bergdahl-and-moral-injury-27864
- 'Disillusionment and Moral Injury: the Curious Case of Bowe Bergdahl', ABC Religion and Ethics, 3/6/14, http://www.abc.net.au/religion/articles/2014/06/03/4017907.htm
- 'Supporting Our Veterans: Moral Therapy in Civilian Life,' ABC Religion and Ethics, 24/4/14, http://www.abc.net.au/religion/articles/2014/04/24/3991059.htm
- 'War as Punishment: President Obama's Syrian Solution', ABC Religion and Ethics, 2/9/13, http://www.abc.net.au/religion/articles/2013/09/02/3838927.htm
- 'From religion to patriotism: how we see the death of the soldier', The Conversation, 3/7/12, http://theconversation.edu.au/from-religion-to-patriotism-how-we-see-the-death-of-a-soldier-4838